WB and the City of Kigali (CoK) collaborate within the RUDP II project to improve urban areas in Kigali including the mitigation of flood effects, upgrading of low income areas, improving environmental conditions and so on. One of the studies carried out under RUDPII was to analyse the potential positive effects of urban nature based solutions in Kigali to mitigate floods, but also to enhance social and environmental conditions. This study was commissioned by the World Bank to a consortium led by Defacto urbanism and included HKV as subconsultant. The study analysed the flood risk in Kigali, developed a long list of nature based solutions (NBS), assessed the NBS in terms of effect on the flood risk, but also the effect on other functions such as social, cultural and environmental. The project also in particular looked at future urban and climate developments and proposed a plan how to address adverse impacts through NBS. A roadmap towards funding of large scale NBS was also provided by the consultant.